Year 11 Geography


Lesson 1:

Introduce concept of geography (define).

Geography is the study of human interaction with the natural environment.
Expand this definition using the above link.

Brainstorm environments that you know.
Why is it important to study geography?
Current geographic issues.
Jobs that the study of geography can lead to.
SAC Feb 17th Natural Environment

Lesson 2

Geographic Environments can be understood in terms of
4 Overlapping Spheres (copy definitions, copy diagram 1.1.2 p30).
  • Lithosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Hydrosphere

Characteristics of Natural Environments
  • Attempt to define 'Natural System'.
  • Read ‘Characteristics of natural Environments’ p. 30
  • Now refine your definition of 'Natural System'.
  • Read ‘inputs and outputs’ p31-32
  • Copy diagram 1.1.4 'Inputs, components, processes and outputs' p31.
  • Construct a table with 4 columns (Inputs, Components, Processes and Outputs)
  • Identify and record the inputs, components, processes and outputs of the Murray Valley.
  • Answer Q1 - 2 p32.
  • HW define the floods in the Campaspe River Valley in terms of the 4 spheres


Lesson 3

Review HW (Campaspe Valley cf. Murray Valley)
Revise 4 spheres
Understanding Questions - Read definitions on p26-7
Complete Quiz: what is your high score?

Choose 5 that you are unsure of and copy these into your notes
Answer Q1,2,3 p32 on spheres and characteristics of environments

Classifying Environments... (in terms of)
  • elements
  • human / natural features
  • location
  • scale
  • use
  • change

Classify the environments shown in the photos on p.4-5
Read p 6-8
HW Complete Q1-5 (submit via email) due Tuesday 15/2

Lesson 4

Review HW + four components of natural systems
Attempt the VERBS quiz above and see if you can improve your score on last time. Which verbs are you having trouble with. Write down the definitions of 3 verbs that you have trouble with.

Use think, pair, share and break into small groups and assign pages to be read and presented to class.
  • Group 1: Pg 6-7 -Classifying environments, applying spatial concepts, location, distance and scale
  • Group 2: Pg 8-9-Distribution Region and movement
  • Group: Pg 10-11. Spatial Interaction and Spatial Association
  • Group 4: Pg 12- Spatial change over time and using the spatial concepts.
  • Each group must draw a diagram for each part chosen.
Once you are finished in groups each group will come up and present their findings while the rest of the class listens and takes notes.

Classifying environments

Geographers classify the elements of the global environment into groups of similar objects or ideas.

Applying spatial concepts
Location. where phenomena is found on the earths surface
Distance. the space between different locations on the earths surface
Scale. Is the size of something in relation to something else
Distribution, Region and Movement

Distribution: the arrangement of a row of objects or features on the earths surface is known as distribution. Example is radial distribution along a road.

Region; is an area of earths surface that contains one or more common characteristics that distinguish it from another area.

Movement: is the change in location of phenomena, such as people, resources and ideas, between places across the earths surface.
Spatial Interaction.
  • the relationship between phenomena (people, resources or ideas) degree to which they influence each other over the earths surface.
  • involves movement.
  • Both movement and spatical interaction require a shift in location.
  • it involves the movement or interaction of people, goods or information between different places.
  • thing that are located closer together have a stronger interaction then things that are further apart.

Spatial Association.
  • the association or connection that can be made between two geographic characteristics that are distributed across the earth.
  • Can occur between two natural geographic characteristics.
  • Can occur between the human activities that take place on the earth.
  • Can be viewed at a range of scales: local, regional, national and global.
Spatial Change Over Time - Using Spatial Concepts

Spatial change over time:
Is the degree to which an area has changed its geographic characteristic, over a period of time. This change occurs at varying, rates at different points in time. This can happen rapidly people leaving a building or gradual over millions of years like movement of tectonic plates.

Using spatial concepts:
The geography of natural environment and human environment and the processes that produce them are organised using spatial concepts. When using them - be specific.
  • Draw a diagram showing spatial change over time in the yard at lunch time from the bell at the beginning of lunch for the first 20 minutes.

Lesson 5

Read 'Human Activity' p36 together. Answer Q 2,4 and 6.
Local examples of change

due to human activity
Growth, increasing population density and changing management practices have led to...
  • the building of a housing estate near the new St. Mary's Primary School;
  • the expansion of Moama along Perricoota Rd;
  • the development of the old sale yards into a shopping complex (Bunnings and a new McDonalds?);
  • management of the rivers and forests leading to black water in the Murray River;
  • buy back of irrigation licences near Rochester; halting of forestry in the Barmah forest;
  • encroaching salinity in irrigation areas; sand bagging and building of levees to combat recent floods;
  • spraying for locusts;
  • visiting tourists on weekends and over holidays.
to natural processes
higher rainfall associated with la nina weather events has led to...
  • greener gardens and fields
  • high yield crops
  • flooding and damage to many of those crops
  • locust plagues



Poster activity - Spatial Characteristics of Own Home (Assessment Task)

  • Have students complete spatial concept sheet on their own home
  • Design a poster that demonstrates all four spheres which make up a natural system and explain how they are dynamic and interactive. Must include written report with each sphere. Include the ways they are dynamic and interactive.
  • List as many spatial concepts as possible


  • Introduce PowerPoint SAC
  • Hand out criteria sheet and go over criteria.

Lesson 6

St Joseph's College - History of Change

  • Take a walk around St Joseph's College
  • Take notes on paper of the human and natural features of an environment and how this has changed over time
    • identify and label changes which occurred in 2011, 2010, 2009 etc.
    • go back as far as you can
    • Talk to staff, friends and family who went to this school as students
  • Visit the library and find old year books
  • Challenge:
    1. Identify major changes, what they looked like and when they occurred.
      • New Science Labs in Tullow. When were the old one's built?
      • Computer rooms built and removed. Explain why.
        • Computer rooms were first introduced to St. Joseph's with the ICT revolution in the late 1990's. I think the first computers were in the library and a few computers were placed downstairs in Delaney and upsdtairs Tullow. Before that Rm 60 was the first room. round about 2004. Rm 40 was turned into a computer room around 2006. They were removed in 2011 as the school changed from traditional classroom teaching to one-to-one laptops.
      • Chanel (single, double story, where was the kitchen / home economics?)
        • Built in 2005 (first story). The Foods room and Arts from were built in 2009. The courtyard in 2010. Before this the kitchen was in downstairs Apsley. The building was built to keep up with OHS regulations as well as increasing numbers at the school.
      • Delaney (and the houses before that)
        • Built in 1984 as numbers increased at the school.
      • Library (and Tullow extension)
        • Built in 1964
        • The "West Wing" was demolished in 1998
        • Replaced and renamed "Tullow" as a new library and 6 classrooms in 1998
      • Tullow (and Science labs)
        • Built in 1961-1967.
        • Classrooms were added on top of the Science labs (West Wing) in 1975.
        • Renovated 2010 - 2011
    2. When were the first male student's come to St. Joseph's?

    3. Suggest why St. Joseph's changed from being an all girls school.
      • Numbers decreasing?
      • School wanted to provide Catholic Education for boys as well.
    4. Where was the boy's yard?
      • The boys yard was a the North Eastern Corner of the school.
    5. And what current features are left over from that time?
      • The fence
    6. Why is there no boys yard anymore?
    7. Describe the biosphere flows that occur every day during lunch since its conversion to a general sports area.
    8. Where was the famous St. Joseph's College Hedge?
    9. Discuss why the sisters kept a large hedge around St. Joseph's College for so long.
    10. What change in thinking led to its removal?
    11. Where did the boarders live?
    12. When was the last boarder at St. Joseph's College?
    13. Why did boarders come to Echuca?
    14. Where did the boarders come from?
    15. Why did they stop being taken at St. Joseph's College?
    16. In which parts of Apsley did the Bridgidine nuns live?
    17. Where was the sisters grow their fruit?
    18. What trees grew there?
    19. Explain why it was important for the sisters to have their own fruit and vegetable gardens.
    20. Where was the grotto? Why was it removed?
    21. Where was the meditation garden? Why was it removed?
    22. Where was the first classroom? What came next?
    23. Which part of Apsley was Henry Hopwood's house? Why did he live in this part of Echuca?
    24. When did the Brigidine sisters move from the Apsley building and where did they move to?
    25. Why would the first classroom have been so far away from the original building (Henry Hopwood's House)?
    26. Describe what the land would have looked like before white settlement.
    27. Explain why this site was seen as particularly suitable for a school and convent by the Brigidine Sisters.


  • Take note of all Spatial Concepts and record them in your notes

Lesson 7 - 9

Complete Assignment on St Joseph's College.
(You may share your answers and help each other, but each person is to submit their own work).

Tuesday 22/2 P2 library lesson
Research change at St. Joseph’s since it’s foundation.
Find old photos, articles that refer to particular buildings and the way the school was run.
  • You could look up old school magazines for the last 10 years, 7,6,5,3,2,1,0
  • find a book on the history of Echuca,
  • or ask Sr. Margaret
Copy the photos you have found using the camera in your laptop
  • use PhotoBooth and flip the photo so that they are not backwards
  • past these to a St. Joseph’s spatial diagram (download from wiki)
  • alter your spatial diagram so that it reflects the time in the photograph
  • list the differences that you are aware of between then and now under your spatial diagram.
  • you should have one spatial diagram for each year you have gathered evidence for.

Include answers to the above questions.

Wednesday 23 P4 library lesson
Working in groups, find the answers to the questions on the wiki about the changes at St. Joseph’s College, by...
  • Researching on the internet
  • asking staff
  • emailing staff
  • looking through books on the history of Echuca.
  • Alter your spatial diagram so that it reflects the time in the photograph
  • list the differences that you are aware of between then and now under your spatial diagram.
  • you should have one spatial diagram for each year you have gathered evidence for.

Thursday 24th P2 library lesson
  • Choose two of the periods you have been researching.
  • Show your understanding of how the spatial concepts of the time have led to the changes you have observed.
  • Consider the information you found.
  • Using the SPATIAL CONCEPTS sheet identify how particular factors may have affected others and led to the decisions for change at St Josephs College (or its location). For example: in the late 1800’s Echuca was a transport hub, with paddle-steamers bringing goods from all along the Murray Darling Basin to the newly built train line to the Port of Melbourne. With transport came jobs, with jobs came people, with increasing population came the need for services. Location, scale, distance, region, movement, spatial association and change in these over time all played a part in Echuca being considered a dynamic environment at the time.
  • If you need a refresher, re-read pages 1-16 of your text.


Location = Where something is. Can be relative or absolute.


Scale = Size in relation to something else (as on a map, or population) and the size of the area being studied.


Distribution = Pattern formed by things in real life or on a map


Distance = Space between two locations

Region = An area that has a particular characteristic that distinguishes it from other regions

Movement = Change in the location of something

Spatial Changeover Time = Change in the mappable characteristics over time

Spatial Association =

Spatial Interaction = The links or influences between locations

Early photos of St. Joseph's College

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SrMarieAnneSTJ03.jpg stjSrMarieAnne.jpg
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DSC01134.jpg DSC01132.jpg 1.jpg 2.jpg 3.jpg
4.jpg 5.jpg 6.jpg 8.jpg mapSTJold.jpg

(You may share your answers and help each other, but each person is to submit their own work).

Lesson 10

  • Do questions on Ph 8 (#’s 1, 3, and 4). Page 10 #1
  • Have students write a summary of each for homework.
  • Role play list of ideas I will give out to students.
  • One student at a time will go up in front of the class and describe what their term is.
  • In groups they must decide what the term is.


The Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami March 2011


Related links:

What Is a Tsunami?
Tsunami Safety Facts
News: Earthquake in the Indian Ocean Causes a Massive Tsunami

timeline of a tsunami

  1. movement in the Earth's continental plates
  2. build up of tension along a fault
  3. earthquake causes sudden movement of continental plate (or sea floor). (S or P waves)?
  4. small tsunami wave in deep ocean moving fast. (How fast)?
  5. tsunami wave slows down and increases in height near shore.
  6. waters recede on coast
  7. rush of water inland as tsunami strikes

Tsunamis are part of Japanese culture. Why?
Tsunamis are part of Japanese culture. Why?

HW - Find where most volcanoes occur on the Ring Of Fire (Fig. 1.2.2 p38)
and compare frequency of eruptions with Fig 1.2.4 (p31)

Questions and answers from students.

  1. Why has the Fuji mountain grown 8feet?.. Why did Mt Fiji get higher? Mt. Fuji was raised in the earthquake which hit Japan because as the oceanic plate forced its way under the Japanese continental plate it caused the continental plate (of which Mt Fuji is a part) to buckle. Another more sinister cause could be the rising pressure of magma in the volcanoes magma chamber. Lets hope this is not the case, because this precedes an eruption.
  2. How for into land did the water reach?.. The water was reported to travel up to 10 km inland. THis would have been at a low lying part of the coast with a gentle incline, such as where a river meets the sea
  3. How wide was the Tsunami? The Tsunami eventually affected teh whole Pacific ocean. It spread out in concentric circles like the ripples from a stone that has been thrown into the water. The closer a location was to the epicenter the bigger the wave (though there are some other factors which affect its size as well)
  4. Why did the earthquake hit after the tsunami? Tsunamis follow earthquakes if there has been an upward movement in the earth's crust. This movement pushes water away, effectively causing a large wave.
  5. Why did the ash from the volcanos stop the airoplane? THe dense ash cloud that the qantas jet flew through did not allow enough oxygen to enter the engine. It snuffed out the flame.
  6. How much warming time do they have before the Tsunami hit in Japan?.. They had between 30 seconds and a few minutes I believe, however it would depend on how far away from the epicentre the town was and how far inland. I have not found a definitive answer for this question.
  7. Are the earthquakes around the world connected? Yes they are in the sense that they are prompted by movements in the Earth' tectonic plates. If two locations are on the same plate then the quakes are the result of movement on that same plate.
  8. Why does the Richter Scale only go up to 10, is it possible to go over? It is not possible to go over the scale because each level is 10 times greater than the last. At least it is designed not to be possible. I would hate to be anywhere near an earthquake that did go over.
  9. How deep do volcanoes go? Volcanoes go all the way down to the magma... if they are on the continental plate this could be up to 30km.
  10. How hot is lava? Lava is at different temperatures at different depth. It cools quickly at the surface and turns to stone (basalt). When it travels through lava tubes it may be between 1,000 - 2,000 degrees celsius... web refs vary
  11. How many volcanoes are there in the world? The exact number of volcanoes is unknown. It also depends on the definition of a "volcano": for instance, there are "volcanic fields" that comprise hundreds of individual eruption centers (such as conder cones, maars, shield volcanoes) that are all relataed to the same magma chamber and that may or not be counted as a single "volcano". There are probably millions of volcanoes that have been active during the whole lifespan of the earth. During the past 10,000 years, there are about 1500 volcanoes on land that are known to have have been active, while the even larger number of submarine volcanoes is unknown. At present, there are about 600 volcanoes that have had known eruptions during recorded history, while about 50-70 volcanoes are active (erupting) each year. At any given time, there is an average of about 20 volcanoes that are erupting. (


Lesson 11

Introduction of Volcanic Environments


Geographers are interested in the how and why volcanoes erupt, together with the impacts on both people and the end the environment that surrounds them.
Magma - molten rock within the Earth
Solar radiation - sunlight (heat + light)
Atmospheric circulation patterns - wind and weather (like in weather maps)
Active volcanoes - those that have erupted in the last 200 years
Dormant volcano - last erupted between 200 and 10,000 years
Extinct volcano - not erupted in the last 10,000 years
Convection currents - currents caused by rising heat
Continental Crust: how thick? 35 - 50 km. Mostly made of granite. Lighter than oceanic crust. Does not sink.
Oceanic crust: how thick? 5 -10km. Mostly made of basalt.



  • Read page 38 and in your books explain how the hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere and the atmosphere affect volcanic environments
  • Read page 38-39 Introduction
  • Look at the locations of volcanos in the world
  • Note the ring of fire
  • Draw Figure 1.2.3 in books
  • Answer questions 1, 2, 4 and 5 on page 41.

Plate Techtonics

Interesting Fact :While many people throughout history have reflected on the mobile nature of the earth's surface, one of the first scientists to put forward a well-documented proposal for the large-scale motion of continents was a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener. He compiled various lines of evidence supporting the hypothesis that all of earth's continents had been assembled as a single "supercontinent" approximately 250 million years ago.


Search the internet fort he answers to these questions (and then share them with the class).
How fast is...
  1. Australia moving North?
  2. Antarctica moving South?
  3. Is the East African Rift Valley splitting?

When did...
  1. Tower Hill last erupted?
  2. Last volcano erupted in Australia?

Lesson 12

Volcanic Environments - Plate Movements - Subduction

Make an Keynote of an iMovie presentation this lesson to be placed on the wiki about...

  1. Volcanoes in Victoria
  2. The geographic history of Hanging Rock
  3. How tsunami’s form
  4. How ocean floor spreading drives subduction
  5. The effect of the recent earthquake and tsunami in Japan on the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere in that region.

You may find these google links useful...

  • Draw a diagram of what Subduction, plate movement and the different layers are.

Lesson 13 - 15

Watch movie “Dante’s Peak”
· Discussion of Dante’s Peak movie
· Compare the differences of what we have been learning in our textbooks with the description of the Volcano in the movie
· Go over signs, early evacuation, etc
  • Discuss the Volcanic Activity around Mt. St. Helens and around Tower Hill
Compare volcanos here and in other places

Preparation for Hanging Rock SAC

e.g. Japan Tsunami

Classifying Geographic Environments.
1. Review the four spheres.
  • Lithosphere (type of volcano, rocks, erosion, how is it changing)
  • Hydrosphere (rivers, drainage, dams)
  • Biosphere (animals, plants, people, tourism)
  • Atmosphere (climate)

2. Spatial Characteristics
  • Location
  • Scale
  • Distribution
  • Distance
  • Region
  • Movement
  • Spatial Association
  • Spatial Interaction
  • Spatial Change Over Time